14.1 Present Perfect
1 The Present Perfect refers to an action that happend some time before now.
She’s travelled to most parts of the world.
Have you ever been in a car accident?
2 If we want to say when these actions happened, we must use the Past Simple.
She went to Russia two years ago.
I was in a crash when I was 10.
3 Notice the time expressins used with the Past Simple.
|I left||last night.
at three o’clock.
|have||(not) been||to the States.||I’ve been = I have been
You’ve been = You have been
We’ve been = We have been
They’ve been = They have been
|has||He’s been = He has been
She’s been = She has been
It’s been = It has been
|Yes/No questions||Short answers|
|Have you been to Russia?||Yes, I have.
No, I haven’t.
ever and never
We use ever in questions and never in negative sentences.
Have you ever been to Russia?
I’ve never been to Russia.
14.2 yet and just
We use just in positive sentences. We use yet in negative sentences and questions.
Have you done your homework yet?
I haven’t it yet (but I’m going to).
I have just done it (a short time before now).
14.3 been and gone
She’s gone to Portugal (and she’s there now).
She’s been to Portugal (sometime in her life, but now she has returned).
She works for a big company.
Hamlet is a play by Shakespeare.
Brad and Marilyn are on honeymoon.
Wait for me!